Monochromatic Anterior Segment Imaging

Monochromatic photography has a long history of use in ophthalmology. Illumination of the subject eye with light of a specific color can enhance the contrast and visibility of various structures or findings.  Traditionally, it is used in black-and white fundus photography to enhance anatomical details of the retina and choroid, but the same concept can also be applied to other parts of the eye.

Classic example of monochromatic green (red-free) rendition of fundus pathology. The green filter enhances the view to the retinal vessels and the macular lesion.

Monochromatic information can be captured by either filtering the light source (such as with a fundus camera), or placing a contrast filter in front of the camera lens to limit the color reaching the sensor. A subject color will appear lighter when photographed through a filter of the same color, and darker when photographed through a filter of its’ complementary or opposite color. For example, a red subject would appear lighter if exposed through a red filter and darker when photographed a complementary color filter, which in this case would be cyan (blue-green).

Red/Green/Blue color separations of a color fundus photograph of a choroidal nevus demonstrating the value on monochromatic rendering. The red channel shows a darkened lesion similar to the monochromatic effect using a red contrast filter. The blue and green channels suppress the view of the pigmented lesion.

In addition to the traditional technique of using monochromatic illumination with black-and-white photography, another alternative is to take full-color photos without filters and then use software to split the full color image into separate red, green, and blue color components.

Monochromatic views of a salmon colored conjunctival lesion. The lesion appears lighter than the conjunctiva in the red channel, while the blues channel darkens the lesion making it more apparent.
A similar effect occurs in this image of subconjunctival hemorrhage. It’s a great example of how subject colors that are the same as the channel or filter will appear lighter. The blood is darkened by the green and blue channel.

This is a remarkably simple way to obtain monochromatic renderings from any full color image. It works particularly well with color slit-lamp photos of the anterior segment.

A conjunctival lesion stained with lissamine green. Here the red channel darkens the stain pattern, while the green and blue channel lightens the blue-green dye.

One disadvantage to this method is the loss of resolution that occurs when viewing just a single channel that makes up the full color image. It also limits the available monochromatic information to just the three primary colors, red, green, and blue, but that’s usually sufficient for anterior segment applications.

Monochromatic renditions of corneal blood staining.
A dislocated cataract in the anterior chamber. Blue (which is the opposite color of yellow) darkens the lens almost completely, while the red channel enhances its appearance.

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